Fire Control System

Fire protection and life safety systems are required for buildings and structures to prevent the spread of fire and smoke, protect occupants and property, and facilitate firefighting operations


9/20/20235 min read


According to the International Building Code (IBC),

Fire protection and life safety systems are required for buildings and structures to prevent the spread of fire and smoke, protect occupants and property, and facilitate firefighting operations. The IBC references various standards from the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) and other organizations for the design, installation, testing, and maintenance of these systems.

Some of the fire protection and life safety systems that are relevant for pharmaceutical facility management are:

Fire control panels: These are devices that monitor and control the operation of fire alarm and suppression systems. They receive signals from fire detectors, manual pull stations, sprinklers, and other devices, and activate audible and visual alarms, fire doors, dampers, fans, pumps, and other equipment. Fire control panels should comply with NFPA 72, National Fire Alarm and Signaling Code.

Smoke detectors: These are devices that sense the presence of smoke in the air and send a signal to the fire control panel. Smoke detectors can be either ionization or photoelectric type, depending on the principle of detection. Smoke detectors should be installed in accordance with NFPA 72 and NFPA 101, Life Safety Code.

PULL switch: This is a manual device that allows a person to initiate a fire alarm by pulling a lever or handle. Pull switches should be located near exits, stairways, or other conspicuous places, and should be easily accessible and identifiable. Pull switches should also comply with NFPA 72 and NFPA 101.

Fire detectors: These are devices that sense the presence of heat, flame, or gas in the environment and send a signal to the fire control panel. Fire detectors can be either fixed-temperature, rate-of-rise, or combination type, depending on the principle of detection. Fire detectors should be installed in accordance with NFPA 72 and NFPA 101.

Pharmaceutical facilities are subject to specific fire hazards due to the nature of their operations, materials, equipment, and processes. Some of these hazards include flammable liquids and gases, combustible dusts, corrosive chemicals, pressurized vessels, electrical equipment, hot surfaces, and biological agents. Therefore, pharmaceutical facilities should follow the guidelines of NFPA 45, Standard on Fire Protection for Laboratories Using Chemicals, which covers the fire safety requirements for laboratories that handle chemicals or biological materials.

NFPA 45 classifies laboratories into four risk categories based on the quantity and hazard level of the materials used: A (high), B (moderate), C (low), or D (minimal). Depending on the risk category, NFPA 45 specifies the maximum allowable quantities of flammable and combustible liquids and gases per laboratory unit or control area; the minimum separation distances between laboratories and other occupancies; the minimum fire resistance ratings of walls, floors, ceilings, doors, windows, and penetrations; the minimum ventilation rates; the minimum number and types of fire extinguishers; the minimum requirements for automatic sprinkler systems; the minimum requirements for emergency eyewash stations and showers; and other safety measures.

In addition to NFPA 45, pharmaceutical facilities should also comply with other relevant standards from NFPA or other organizations for specific aspects of fire protection and life safety. For example:

NFPA 30, Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code, which covers the storage, handling, and use of flammable and combustible liquids.

NFPA 68, Standard on Explosion Protection by Deflagration Venting, which covers the design and installation of venting systems to prevent explosions due to combustible dusts or gases.

NFPA 70, National Electrical Code, which covers the installation of electrical wiring and equipment.

NFPA 79, Electrical Standard for Industrial Machinery, which covers the electrical safety requirements for industrial machinery.

NFPA 99, Health Care Facilities Code, which covers the fire safety requirements for health care facilities that provide medical care or treatment.

ISO 14644-1:2015 Cleanrooms and associated controlled environments — Part 1: Classification of air cleanliness by particle concentration, which covers the classification of cleanrooms based on the number of particles per cubic meter of air.

These are some of the international standards that apply to fire control panels, smoke detectors, pull switches, and fire detectors for pharmaceutical facility management systems. However, this is not an exhaustive list. There may be other standards that are relevant depending on the specific characteristics of each facility. Therefore, it is important to consult with qualified professionals who can assess the fire risks and design appropriate fire protection and life safety systems for each facility .Fire hydrant fire control system how much water quantity reserved in UG water Tank

The tank's testing, inspection, and maintenance

The amount of water reserved in an underground water tank for a fire hydrant fire control system depends on the fire protection volume required for the facility. The fire protection volume is the amount of water needed to supply the fire suppression system for a specified duration, usually 1 or 2 hours. The fire protection volume can be calculated based on the type, size, and occupancy of the facility, as well as the design and demand of the fire suppression system.

According to NFPA 22, Standard for Water Tanks for Private Fire Protection, the water supply shall be capable of filling the minimum required fire protection volume within the tank in a maximum of 8 hours. The tank shall be kept filled, and the water level shall never be more than 4 in. (102 mm) below the designated fire service level.

For example, if a facility requires a fire protection volume of 60,000 gallons (227 m3) for a 2-hour duration, and the water supply can fill the tank at a rate of 10,000 gallons (38 m3) per hour, then the minimum capacity of the underground water tank should be:

60,000 gallons + (10,000 gallons’ x 2 hours) = 80,000 gallons (303 m3)

This ensures that the tank can provide enough water for the fire suppression system while it is being refilled by the water supply.

The underground water tank should also be designed and constructed in accordance with NFPA 22 and other relevant standards to ensure its reliability and durability. Some of the factors to consider are:

The tank's material, shape, size, location, and orientation

The tank's foundation, anchorage, insulation, and coating

The tank's fittings, valves, vents, drains, and overflows

The tank's access openings, ladders, platforms, and safety devices Clean whole tank wash its wall wash with water pressure walls ceiling.. install a chlorine dose pump witch work automatically works proposed quantity by calculation according to volume of water.

Working Sprinkle's

Fire Control Panel

Fire Control Panel